Wednesday, November 22, 2006

Stand-Up is Tricky

One draft down, one to go. But in the interim, I got a fair number of requests to chat about the Michael Richards incident, from a stand-up's point of view. I got a couple similar notes requesting discussion when the Kerry debacle occurred.

All the Kerry incident tells you is that jokes are hard. A joke -- particularly the type Kerry was trying -- involves a reverse in both written concept and delivery, a SNAP of the curveball right at the plate. That's something a lot of civilians miss on jokes. There are jokes with an ironclad structure, and then there are ones that rely on delivery only for the laugh, while 99.99999 % require a personally stylistic blend of the two. Ellen DeGeneres, for example had these intricately timed clockwork jokes only she could deliver, while somebody like Elayne Boosler wrote marvelously solid jokes you could give a chimp to perform. Elayne's stage presence is the bonus.

Kerry's joke itself was poorly constructed -- not a lot of safety rails on it for the none-pro, and not the way a professional comic would have written it. (And again, liberal politicians -- we're right here. Stop just taking our checks and maybe let us help you not suck in public, maybe make an ad or two that isn't bog-fucking-boring. Happy to help, really)

This is a bit geeky, but let's look at Kerry's joke.

"Education, if you make the most of it, you study hard, you do your homework and you make an effort to be smart, you can do well. And if you don't, you get stuck in Iraq."

The point of the joke, of course, is that Bush is an intellectually lazy man, and one would do well to avoid his mistakes. In his comments afterwards, Kerry made clear that he was commenting on the President's intellect. That is, the President is dumb.

But the joke as written is about being lazy, not about being dumb. The problem is, that you want the punchline to fit the stereotype of Bush as dumb, not intellectually lazy. "Bush is dumb" is the stereotype, the instant mental shorthand that allows you to snap the image for the laugh. Sure, "Bush is intellectually lazy" may be closer to the actual truth, but it's useless from a humor standpoint.

Beside the construction problem, there's the mixed target pronoun. (I had this issue illuminated for me when I was writing a speech for Jenni Baird, an Australian, on GF.) Americans use "you" as a generic pronoun when proper English utilizes "one", that is, there's no real difference of intent between "You are needed" and "One is needed." But there's another layer -- "you" in stand-up not only stands in for the "generic person", but it's a tool a stand-up subtly uses to involve the audience as the subject/participant of the joke. Often there's an implied "I" in a stand-up's "you", too, making that "you" a "we", further emotionally, unconsciously making the stand-up and audience collaborators in the performance.

Knowing this, let's look at Kerry's joke as performed to his audience of students, but with the joke delivery structure exposed.

"Education, if you [students] make the most of it, you [students] study hard, you [students] do your homework and you [students] make an effort to be smart, you [students] can do well. And if you don't, you [Bush] get stuck in Iraq."

See how that's broken? One (heh) might think that the subject change is the reverse of the joke, but it's not it's the subject of the reverse. Meaning the audience hears the joke as:

"Education, if you [students] make the most of it, you [students] study hard, you [students] do your homework and you [students] make an effort to be smart, you [students] can do well. And if you don't, you [students] get stuck in Iraq."

How do students get stuck in Iraq? As soldiers. Ta-frikkin'-da. Add to that Kerry's bumbling of the pause required to accentuate the punch, and well ...

The comedy sins don't stop there. Kerry's writer muddied the joke setup, not just the structure: "make an effort"? "Do well"? Those are soft phrases. The more a joke evokes a specific image in the mind, the better the laugh.

In contrast, let's look at one of my favorite Chris Rock jokes. A slightly different intent, but the joke is oddly parallel in structure, and depends on the same audience realization -- the same snap -- for the laugh.

"A black C student can't do shit with his life. A black C student can't be a manager at Burger King ... meanwhile a white C student just happens to be the President of the United States."

Just quoting that joke doesn't do justice to the mastery of Rock's delivery. He's like a musician now, and there are multiple subtle rhythm breaks in the delivery of joke that really make it land. The joke is about privilege, not about Bush being dumb per se, but I hope it illustrates the point.

There's an interesting, longer discussion on how all humor comes from persona, how Al Gore is funny while Bill Clinton is not, and why George Bush will never be, but we'll get to that some other time.

The Michael Richards incident, however, illustrates that stand-up is hard. What the hell Richards was doing on the stage of the Laugh Factory, I have no idea. I've been out of the live-performance loop for some time; I don't know if he's been doing a lot of stage-time lately. However, Richards was never a stand-up before now. He was a sketch and improv performer. Setting aside the longstanding, friendly rivalry between stand-ups and improv performers, those are two entirely different animals. Improv and sketch performers, while walking their own high-wires, still operate under the culturally programmed shield of the constructed performance. They are doing characters, in a wee little play. It's a thin shield to be sure, but it completely changes the performer/audience dynamic. It's the blood/brain barrier of the nightclub world.

When Richards apologized -- a piss-poor non-apology -- he blamed "rage". That rage came from a lack of control, a feeling of helplessness before the hecklers. Those hecklers, weren't all the tough, the problem was they were right -- Richards was sucking. Hard. But that's not surprising, or even really a negative judgment on his talent or performance. He's not a stand-up. Whatever skills he does have, they weren't going to work at the Laugh Factory on a late show.

There's another layer here. It's one thing for Richards to go on stage with the audience having certain expectations of him, and being unequipped to fulfill those expectations in the format he'd chosen. But to have to deal with the knife-edge of audience control after a decade of being absolutely, unconditionally-given love as Kramer ... yikes. Thats got to be one toxic brew. Even more bilious to have had that attention and that love and the constant adulation and proclamations of genius ... to then not be able to grasp it again, to have these goddam proles cut you down, you sonuvabitches I WAS/AM A COMEDY GOD...

The human brain just isn't wired for fame. The lucky escape with their lives.

Class, please consult the finest text on this particular font of madness, Cintra Wilson's A Massive Swelling: Celebrity Reexamined as Grotesque Crippling Disease and Other Cultural Revelations. Discussions to follow.

41 comments:

Trista said...

Sorry, man, there's a typo in your link.
Thanks again for the window into stand-up! =)

Jeremy Slater said...

I'll second the love for Wilson's book. It's brilliant stuff.

Roland said...

It's "http" not "ttp" in the linky.

Lesson: Blogging is hard.

dja said...

"Education, if you [students] make the most of it, you [students] study hard, you [students] do your homework and you [students] make an effort to be smart, you [students] can do well. And if you don't, you [students] get stuck in Iraq."

Well, that's what he said, but of course, the joke as Kerry's people actually wrote it included the word "us," which makes a little bit more sense:

"Education, if you [students] make the most of it, you [students] study hard, you [students] do your homework and you [students] make an effort to be smart, you [students] can do well. And if you don't, you [students] us get stuck in Iraq."

This is, of course, assuming the students rise to some position of political power or influence despite not doing homework, studying hard, or making an effort to be smart. Which, to be fair, is not exactly unprecedented.

The joke is still ineptly written, but Kerry's "performance" of it changed the meaning entirely by dropping the "us."

dja said...

Oh, fercrissakes. I just ht "publish" instead of "preview."

As written, the line was:

you [students] get us stuck in Iraq.

Not the frickin' caveman grammar thing I posted above.

nks said...

I don't make my living in the arts which means I'm going to comment on some things that I don't know about -- so consider yourselves forewarned...

While I can only imagine how difficult it must be doing stand-up, I think I have some understanding of how hard it is to tell a joke, at least from a layman's perspective. I definitely know what it's like to say something and have what I meant to say be misinterpreted and have it be my fault.

That being said, I am far more willing to accept Michael Richards's piss-poor apology/explanation (yes, it IS pretty piss-poor) than John Kerry's. Sure, my political bias probably has something to with it, but I just don't believe John Kerry when he says he was trying to tell a joke about the President. I don't know what's in his heart and I can't go as far as to say he's lying, but I'm not buying it.

My next point... Racial slurs... generaly not funny. John, I'm assuming that good stand-up is equal parts talent, bravery and hard work and I'm assuming that's how you got where you are. Calling someone a n***** doesn't take any of those three.

This is all reminding me of how much I miss Andy Kaufman. I don't know if you can classify what he did as stand-up. I just find it interesting how he went before an audience with what seemed to be the intent to piss people off and entertain people in the process, while Michael Richards was not the least bit entertaining while managing to anger a lot of people and quite possibly kill his career.

Eric said...

NKS,

Your political bias against Kerry is makign you irrational. Dja above left out another part of the joke as written. It was supposed to be "You get us stuck in Iraq, just ask president Bush"

Makes it pretty obvious that it was meant as a slam on Bush, not troops.

As for you knowing what's in Kerry's heart, wtf, have you had long converstaions with the man? Do you read minds? That is an absurd statement to make, and frankly downright insulting to Kerry. Disagree with the man's political views. Thsi is a lousy public speaker, whatever. But to essentially accuse him of thinking anyone in the military is an idiot is slanderous.

Joshua James said...

NKS,

Just to get this straight . . so it's easier for you to believe that a former war veteran, winner of many awards in Vietnam, it's easier to believe that he INTENDED to slam and insult the troops currently at war, than it is to believe that he meant to insult a draft-dodging, AWOL deserter of the said Vietnam war who defeated Kerry in the 2004 election.

So Kerry hates the troops more than the guy he lost the Presidency too? Say what?

oh, I think he MEANT to insult the troops and not the President, he's lying when he said he wanted to insult Bush and not the troops?

Excuse me, but where are your brains?

I'm not a Kerry fan, never been, he wasn't and still won't ever be a great candidate for President . . . but if you honestly believe Kerry MEANT to insult the troops and NOT the war deserter* lying butt-munch of a President that we have now, you are a lot more than biased.

You are just fucking stupid.

Yes, I said that. You're a fucking ignorant ass. If you have a problem with what I said, you're welcome to come to New York and discuss it with me in person. I'll meet you by the big fucking hole downtown.

Sorry folks, I cannot stand these idiots who serve Bush and the neo-con right regardless of fact or reality. They are modern-day bigots of the techno-political age.

*when a soldier is absent without leave (AWOL) during time of war, it's considered desertion. Bushie went AWOL during the Vietnam War. Hence, he deserted. They don't like to talk about it, just like his coke habit or drunk driving arrest (and who gets arrested for drunk driving in the seventies? You have to have been so plastered you spoke in tongues to get busted for that in the seventies) but it happened.

James Slusher said...

NKS, I'm gonna have to go with a big WTF?!?

Screwing up a joke about a president is worse (and less deserving of forgiveness) than going on a racial slur tirade?

I find that both incomprehensible and deeply disturbing.

Rogers said...

Hey, hey, no out-and-out name calling Only I get to call somebody "fucking stupid" on my blog.

Having said that, yes, I have to agree that thinking Kerry was intentionally insulting the troops makes no logical sense, particularly when the alternative was that he was trying to insult a guy who he really, really hates. Occam's Razor.

Andy Kaufman, well, that was a whole different bag. There'll never be another like him. It is fair to say that for every audience member whom he delighted, there were two more who were (justifiably) annoyed. Being willing to pay that price, that's a heckuva thing.

As for Richards, my friend Rick Jenkins makes an excellent point that it's not just that Richards went to "nigger", it's that he reached into the mental golf bag and came out with the lynching reference off the top of his head. That's a hell of a reach for a guy who's not a racist.

Rogers said...

Lesson: Blogging is hard

Technically, blogging is tricksy. Fine distinction.

nks said...

eric -- First, go back and read what I wrote. I said that I DON’T know what is in his heart and I obviously have never had a conversation with the man. As for Kerry’s official story, label me a skeptic. Having never seen the script in its original form, I guess I’m just supposed to believe every word he says and assume that he left a few words out of his “joke.” I guess I’m also supposed to believe that Kerry is just so much smarter than Bush. Let’s take a quick look at Bush’s intelligence. Anyone who earned a Harvard MBA and learned to fly a jet cannot be the imbecile that his foes consider him to be. And for all his tortured grammar and malapropism, whenever Bush speaks, I understand what he is saying. Now let’s take a look at Kerry. For someone who is so smart, he sure has to explain what he said over and over a lot… I left some words out of a joke… I actually voted for the 87 billion before I voted against it… I’ll go as far as to propose that Bush destroyed Kerry in their debates with just one sentence. When Bush said, “I don’t know about a global test,” I heard everything I needed to hear and went back to paying close attention to the baseball playoffs.
Second, forgive me while I put on my lawyer’s hat for a moment, and no, it’s not made of tin foil. When someone throws out a term like “slanderous,” I tend to think of it in terms of whether such an accusation would last more than ten seconds before a judge. Politically, I am a conservative. I overwhelmingly vote Republican. I heard a politician make a speech. Then I heard him backtrack and explain what he meant to say. In reaction to this, I found the man to be full of it and I made my opinion known to the general public. I don’t really see a cause of action here.

joshua james – Please take a deep breath and calm down. I don’t think Kerry hates the troops. I think he is a patriot and that his service in Vietnam was heroic. However, I also think that the man is not without his flaws. I think he made an off the cuff remark in his L.A. speech without really thinking about what he believes. I also think Kerry does a lot of this -- opening his mouth without thinking first.
As for my “brains” and being an “ignorant ass,” what can I say except that going to law school, studying for the bar and passing the bar exam has left me pretty fucked up. I’m also sending my regrets in response to your New York invitation. I live in Ann Arbor and I find myself disagreeing with most of my neighbors. I was on a date recently with a liberal (yes, really!) and we were walking down Liberty towards State -- a great walk if you’re ever in the area. We made our way past the daily protest at the Post Office when someone shoved a petition in front of me and said, “Sign this so we can impeach Bush!” I replied calmly and rather politely and said, “No thank you. I support the President.” The protester yelled back, “Well, fuck you!” It really made for a great time and I was so glad to be able to share it with someone! Josh (May I call you Josh?), if I can be treated like this at home, I don’t need to go to New York to be treated like shit by someone who thinks I’m an asshole.

james slusher -- Thank you for asking a reasonable question in a respectful manner. Others might want to take note. For the record, I think what Michael Richards did was worse. I think he is remorseful and he regrets what he said, and yet I still find his apology lacking.

rogers -- I made the decision to walk through your minefield, but it’s still nice to know you have my back. I’m sorry this post is so long. To Rogers’s faithful readership… For the record, John and I went to college together and it has been that long since I have seen him. I have since stumbled upon his blog and offer the occasional opposing view. We all know how brilliant and funny he is. I just wish all of you could have seen him holding court over twenty years ago in BMH, the dining hall where we ate some truly atrocious meals. I laughed so hard that my sides would literally feel physical pain. And I repeatedly and willingly subjected myself to this. What do I miss most from my Montreal days? In no particular order, the Habs, smoked meat and John’s comedy in its developmental phase.

steve57 said...

To address an earlier point in the post; it amused to me to see the plea to liberal pols to let you write their material for them - I'd just read the line' "Like a lot of comics at the time [1997], I was approached by Labour politicians and asked to write gags for their speeches" in UK comedian/activist Mark Thomas' new book, so it obviously goes here.

The book, incidently, is about the arms trade and is called 'As Used On The Famous Nelson Mandela' and is phenomanel; funny and chilling in equal measure - go find!

Mark Waid said...

These pretzels are making me racist.

corydalus said...

I have been angry. I have been angry at people not of my own particular eth. But racial slurs are not what comes spewing out of my mouth when I lose my temper.

As the Romans might have said if their Latin sucked, "in ira veritas."

Great primer on joke structure and comedians, btw

Alan Bostick said...

Sure standup is hard, and maybe a famous improv/sketch guy should think twice before attempting a standup performance. And sure, one of fame's complications is acquired situational narcissism.

This all explains the audience's heckling, and Richards' rage.

It neither explains nor excuses Richards' racism in his expression of that rage. If Richards had called his hecklers "assholes" or "idiots" this would be a non-story.

Anonymous said...

The comments were not racist! Richards was making a joke about attitudes to race, about the complexity of the issue. Isnt this made explicit by his comments to the audience - 'it shocks you...' and 'there are still these words...'? Show the comic some support for gods sake. Rest of my argument is on my blog, flame away.

Dave Shepherd said...

"There's an interesting, longer discussion on how all humor comes from persona, how Al Gore is funny while Bill Clinton is not, and why George Bush will never be, but we'll get to that some other time."

I will hold you to that :-)

Gaijin Biker said...

However, Richards was never a stand-up before now.

Not true. I've seen him do stand-up before. I think it was in one of those Comic Relief telethons or something like that. He had a joke about how kids today are bored if you take them to the zoo, but if you put them in the lion cage, they wouldn't be so bored.

That was about as funny as it got; I remember I didn't think he was a good stand-up comic.

Gaijin Biker said...

Resolved: Chris Rock is still funny, but each of his major HBO specials since "Bring the Pain" has been less funny than the one before.

BTP was funnier than Bigger & Blacker, which itself was funnier than Never Scared.

Never Scared had long stretches of Rock using his trademark delivery style to cover the fact that he had run out of good material.

Anonymous said...

I'm not Rick Jenkins, but I agree with him as to what the issue is.

I've been drunk, and I've been angry. But unlike Mark Foley, I've never had an urge to make sexual advances to teenagers under my supervision...and unlike Michael Richards, I've never responded to black people who were enraging me with a racial slur.

What Michael had in his mind, apparently a place he shouldn't go alone at night, was a trope that allowed him to feel superior to the hecklers because he's white and they're not. That's pretty much racism defined.

Azazelo said...

"I'm not Rick Jenkins, but I agree with him as to what the issue is." - agree...

Mickeleh said...

nks,

Here's another piece of evidence for you to consider: the context of Kerry's speech. He was campaigning for a Democratic victory. "Bush got us stuck in Iraq" was the winning campaign issue.

Kerry made string of jokes on President Bush ending with the "botched" joke.

Why on earth would he suddenly switch to a gratuitous slam against the troops? How does it benefit a politician to slam the soldiers? Whose vote would he be hoping to win by doing that?

I can't imagine any explanation for your continuing to insist that Kerry intended to slam the troops other than the fact that you insist on slamming Kerry as hard as possible.

Kerry was a incompetent comic for getting the wording wrong. He was a fool for not correcting the record more swiftly.

But there's no conceivable foundation for imagning that Kerry intended to insult the troops.

BTW, Monkey--Great post.

clarke said...

For me, the most chilling moment of the entire Michael Richards fracas came during the apology on Letterman. A racist tirade I can handle, but when somebody explains his act by saying "I do a lot of free-association," well, my blood just turns to ice.

You want public adulation, mother effer? Then WRITE SOME MATERIAL. And when possible, HONE SAME.

I believe the Seinfeld "anti-dentite" episode sums it up nicely: "No, it offends me as a comedian!"

Steve D said...

Just curious, John (and anybody else out there who wants to pipe in)...

It seems that the Democrats in general, and Kerry in particular, are prone to fall into "gotcha" traps like the "botched joke" incident. (The "87 billion" incident followed a similar pattern.) And usually, in trying to explain away what they really meant, they either sound lame, like they're desperately spinning, or they simply manage to dig the hole deeper (e.g., "I voted for the 87 billion before I voted against it.") There seems to be a general lack of understanding that they're speaking to a medium that thrives on sound-bites. Isn't the best move to go on the offensive with a comment that's sharp, concise and HAS to be reported?

Ex: "This isn't about the troops and all the conservative commenters know it. I botched the joke, but the point's all that matters: Bush comes across as dumb, but he's actually something worse -- he's lazy. He had advantages most American kids only dream about, and he wasted them. He's a C-student who partied his way through college. And he hasn't learned anything since then. He doesn't learn from his mistakes, and he seems proud of it. Our troops deserve the best and brightest from our leaders -- and instead they've got the worst."

Boom, that's it. No appearances on the talk shows to endlessly dither. Just issue a short, sweet statement that's not an apology and which contains a couple of direct strikes at the target. The news media has to acknowledge the statement because it's the only public comment. And the statement should be constructed so that any sound bite pulled from it redirects the attack back at Bush .

And confidential to NKS -- the hostile invective in some of the above posts was unmerited. But look back at Kerry's actual statements and remind yourself of the following facts:

a) Kerry was talking to college students.

b) We don't have a draft (at least this week).

c) None of the students whom Kerry addressed were relying on an educational deferment to keep them off the front lines.

d) In the year 2006, failing out of school does not necessarily equal becoming frontline cannon fodder, i.e., "you might get stuck in Iraq."

I personally think that conservative commentors took the remark out of context -- knowing that voters old enough to know the "Vietnam-era education deferment" meme could be led into misreading Kerry's remarks as an insult to the troops.

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Play Roulette for free as often as you like, get a feel for the game and how to place you bets.
Free Roulette is a great game with many ways to bet so learn strategy and have fun.

Roulette is a casino and gambling game named after

the French word meaning "small wheel".

The roulette wheel is believed to be a fusion

of the English wheel games ... The American style roulette table with a wheel at one end is now used in most casinos.

Is a Free Roulette Systems 100%

Effective Or Should I Pay For One?

They are a dime a dozen, but there are only a few
roulette strategies that really work.

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