Tuesday, October 18, 2005

Book Review: Screenwriting The Sequence Approach

Unlike some working guys, I have a fondness for screenwriting books. I didn’t go to film school -- what passes for my writing toolbox right now is a motley collection of techniques picked up from such books; whatever the hell I gleaned in the trenches of 100-pages-in-three-days rewrites in television; and several thousand pages of honing my liar’s craft while somehow conning people into paying me while I learned the trade. Hell, all that even goes by the wayside sometimes, leaving me standing in front of the mirror in my garage, letting my fevered little imagination run dialogue until it just … hits.

I hop genres fairly regularly, so each script grinds along in a different way. I know writers, excellent writers, who have mastered their approaches, like surgeons who can calmly tackle whatever lands etherized upon their table. My scripts are strapped onto a bloody board, screaming into a leather gag while I rummage around in their guts, blood up to my elbows until finally: “I say, Hadley, this saw-toothed thingy is rather good at getting at the damnable French lead behind the rib cage. Must remember to use it on the next poor bugger.”

Just this weekend, at a meeting with Akiva Goldsman, he told me to solve a plotting problem, “the same way you did it in Killing Floor.”

“Ah. Yeah.”

“Same technique will work.”


“… you have --“

“-- no idea what you’re talking about, no.”

On the other hand, the only explanation I have for my career is that I never really learned how not to write a script. This created some very atypical bits of prose and problem-solving, which apparently made the reads enough fun to keep bringing me back for more. If ever there was proof of “Your ‘style’ is just a collection of your mistakes” ... I’m fairly sure my mistakes paid for my house.

All this to say I think it’s worthwhile to start formally tossing you some recommendations for your tutelage, Spec Monkeys. Seeing as we’ve entertained the “sequence” vs. “three act” debate here a few times, I thought I’d take a look at the keystone book for the Sequence approach.

For those of you in Idaho: for years, the Bible of screenwriting was Syd Field’s Screenplay. In it, he laid out how the traditional dramatic three-act structure applied to a roughly 120 page screenplay. There are historical issues here, about this being a very mixed blessing, but seeing as we’re talking about extending a 2000 year old theory of dramatic development onto our new medium, it seemed to make sense. The majority of screenwriting books, although adding their own little gildings of the matzah, stayed in that structural paradigm.

The Sequence approach basically posits that the best way to attack plotting a movie is through subdividing it into eight or so mini-movies, each with its own information, complication, and partial resolution, building a momentum which leads you to the next sequence.

Screenwriting: The Sequence Approach by Paul Joseph Gulino immediately clarified a lot of my questions about the approach. The book itself is twelve chapters: one chapter on the history of film-making, geared towards both revealing the “hidden” history of Sequence structure in film and explaining how it can be practically applied during the plotting of your script: then eleven example films which are torqued apart to show how the Sequence approach drives them: from Toy Story to The Shop Around the Corner to Being John Malkovich to an odd little chapter on The Fellowship of the Ring.

The first chapter’s history lesson, on how we wound up with the screenwriting structure traditions we have, is a great read. There’s a bit of the apostate’s trick, in that the method the book is pitching is revealed to have been the original One True Method of structuring visual story-telling, lost like a Dead Sea Scroll. The explanation of how the Sequence approach actually works, however, is so clean, you have to let the sales job slide. The “theory” is dealt with in 15 precise pages, letting the analyses of the screenplays that follow do the real work of breaking down the application.

It is interesting that several times during the book, Gulino makes a point of explaining how the Sequence approach actually blends with the traditional dramatic three-act structure. The Sequences are often described as “acts” by some writers, which always threw me. The Sequences, although fractally complete, work to advance the rising tension of the movie’s overall structure even as they resolve their own mini-structures. When you actually crack open Syd Field’s text, now considered a bit hoary, you see he’s dropped what he calls “plot pinches” in similar spots to the Sequence breaks. The Sequence approach isn’t all that radical, really, from what’s considered traditional plotting. It even lays a series of first act-out/midpoint/second-act-out ideas over the Sequences. However, I will say that the internal structure of these mini-movies changes the overall momentum of your movie.

The analyses of the eleven movies are well done. Each movie is parsed in simple language, each film is chosen to showcase how the Sequence approach can be applied to a wide range of tones and genres. There are a few times where you can see the seams, a bit of the “No, these pants fit fine when I hold my breath!” But generally, illuminating. As I mentioned before, the single misfire is an odd last chapter in which Gulino shows how The Fellowship of the Ring could have been a much better movie if it had followed the Sequence approach more closely. I think this reveals Gulino doesn’t work in fantasy or science fiction particularly often -- heavy genre films that require you to immerse an audience in another world require some very specific combos of director/writer tools. I’m the last to say that particular film is beyond criticism, and several of his points are valid -- but having wrestled a bunch of these things to the ground successfully, I can see where he’s still hewing to writing choices which are always the first scenes cut in either the edit or after audience testing. Also, as soon as you argue cutting Tom Bombadil was a mistake, with all due respect you forfeit the right to any further conversation about the adaptation. Just saying.

It’s worth mentioning that once I’d read the book, I looked at a rewrite I was mired in. I realized that although I knew where I wanted to wind up at one point in the movie, the reason I kept stalling was that the previous section lacked a drive. It had conflict, but not a unified conflict. Gulino’s book helped me resolve a wee blind spot first day out. Hey, anything you can reach for when you’re stuck in the long dark soul of the second act is a plus. *

No book is ever going to be able to teach you how to write. Period. But Gulino offers a very useful tool for use while you’re plotting your film. Of course, you need to tell your story your way. Doing that, you’ll wrestle with the constraints of the script format, pacing, a helluva lot of things beyond characterization, dialogue and your emotional beats. I don’t ever want to reduce writing a film to the level of building furniture, but I have read those movie scripts that are pure, unadulterated projections of the writer’s inner narratives and visuals. They suck. They suck hard.

I would say that as long as you treat this Sequence approach as a resource rather than a formula, it’s a damn fine analytical tool to have in the back of your head. It probably shouldn’t be your virgin foray into screenwriting texts. But this goes up as a big RECOMMEND from the Kung Fu Monkey Screenwriting Library.

*(if you haven’t had a gun in your mouth at page 70 at some point, you’re not a real screenwriter)


Keith said...

Ah, the old Tom Bombadil complaint. I've said it before and I'll say it again, if they had made LoTR the way Tokien wrote it without making the changes they did, it would have been an 18 hour musical. With elves and singing trees.

Knowing what not to put in a script is just as important. Because, and I know htis first hand, what works in prose does not always work on the screen.

Joshua said...

Ah Rogers, I've been mired at page 75 on my newest spec for far too long and while I don't truck with firearms, I have been staring hungrily at the many edged weapons hanging about in the home dojo . . . vivid visions of self immolation dancing in my head. I would have walked away from it if it wasn't such a cool idea for a story, damn it.

So I will seek this book and while I don't expect it to solve any or all of my problems, mayhap it can at least point me in the right direction. Thanks for the heads-up.

RB Ripley said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
RB Ripley said...

JR, thanks for scoping stuff out and tossing it on here. But mostly thanks for the constant reiteration of the untruth about the myth of the One Right Way.

Warren Hsu Leonard said...

Glad you liked the book. It's been on my writing desk beside my laptop for the last month. Definitely a helpful resource for aspiring and advanced writers alike.

Jean-Paul Cardier said...

Hey John,

I know what you are talking about vis a vis Tom Bombadil. It was one of the most necessary cuts to make the movie work, but some of my friends were *adamantly* opposed to it. Fellowship was my most favorite of the
3 films in part because of it.

On the other hand, I felt that Jackson's addition of the "love triangle" was completely unnecessary. So, one for one in my book....

econoclast said...

Not only was it a good idea to leave Tom Bombadil out of the movie, he should have been left out of the novel, too. Yewk!

jackd said...

I've read and re-read LoTR enough times in the last 30+ years to claim significant fan points, and I would agree that cutting Bombadil was the right thing to do. I will not plague your blog with my pet complaints; I loved all three of the movies and doubt a better version will appear in my lifetime.

But compliments to you, John, for making some interesting reports on your craft that often entertain those of us who would never consider trying it ourselves.

One tangential question: Do you think the 100-episode rule applies to Lost?

Rogers said...

You mean now that they're in this weird download system, or you vis a vis the actual structure of the show plotting?

Benari said...

So, I'm about 6 weeks into the Dramatic Writing program at NYU and the 3-Act vs. sequence debate comes up a lot. And I have to agree that sequences very easily blend into the traditional 3-Act structure, since at it's most basic level, you can break every movie down into 3 Acts, even when it's sequence-driven:
Act 1, Set-up, point of attack, inciting incident
Act 2, the actual story, protagonist trying to achieve goal(s)/ complete task(s), building to the climax
Act 3, Resolution

Or, in Joseph Campbell terms, the Protagonist's arc: Separation (beginning), Initiation (middle), and Return (end).

Groundhog Day uses a variety of sequences to great effect, I think, but can still be broken down into 3 acts; the sequences mainly drive the second act (imho), propelling the plot forward and moving Bill Murray closer to achieving his goal. But it occurs within the framework of the over-all 2nd Act, comprised of a series of sequences.

Anyway, what I'm learning is that it's never an either/or approach and there's no one right way or formula; these are all tools, as has been said - usually, it's HOW the writer chooses to utilize the tools that's important.

Julie Goes To Hollywood said...

Books schmooks. Maybe you just learn to relax and feel the rhythm. You know, like with...salsa dancing. Aren't film schools and how-to books really in business to give failed writers something to do?THINGS THEY WON'T TELL YOU IN FILM SCHOOL

Rogers said...

and even in salsa dancing, there are steps, forms, correct and incorrect ways to lift your partner ...

although, yes, a remarkable number of screenwriting books are by people whose careers aren't exactly -- knockout in the tradtional sense. Which is why there's no substitute for just writing page after page after page until you stop sucking.

Not Cliff Geertz said...

I think his last name is Gulino, not Gugino.

Otherwise nice review.

Rogers said...

corrected, thanks. Wrote it on the plane.

Thad said...

Maybe you just learn to relax and feel the rhythm. You know, like with...salsa dancing.

I personally, do not want to see someone who does not know anything about salsa try to make it on the dance floor by just "relaxing and feeling the rhythm." In fact, that's possibly the worst advice ever. Chops matter.

Benari said...

Film schools and books can't teach you to have talent ... but they definitely help teach you what to do with that talent. I think anything that adds tools to your toolbox (whether you decide to use them or not) is helpful. Mileage may vary, obviously.

Also, school FORCES you to write, and write constantly. And isn't that really the best way to learn: by just doing?

The Moviequill said...

so did you have to read all 12 chapters in a set sequence or could you throw caution to the wind and read, say, Chapter 4 first? (smirk)

nilblogette said...

All of my other screenwriting books have just collected dust and during a cross country move, I just chucked them all. Gulino's book is never even on my bookshelf. I keep it by me for when I've been writing for too long and have lost all sense of pace, purpose, and objectivity. I just open it to any page and say, "Oh yeah. That's what I was supposed to be doing." There's not any fluff in this book so any page serves as a helpful reminder.

As for that jackass Bombadil, he not only should have been left out of the movie AND the book, but he also should have been left out of the video game. They tried to be revisionist with the game by forcing you to spend hours finding stupid white lilies.

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apa nama obat antibiotik untuk kutil kemaluan wanita
jenis obat antibiotik yang dikonsumsi penderita kutil kelamin
mendeteksi kutil kelamin
kapsul kutil kelamin ibu hamil denature
tanya dokter apakah kutil kelamin menular lewat celana dalem
Tumbu dibagian kelamin
herpes genitalis pada wanita

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